Every snowflake has an infinite beauty which is enhanced by knowledge
that the investigator will, in all probability, never find another exactly
like it. Consequently, photographing these transient forms of Nature gives
to the worker something of the spirit of a discoverer. Besides combining
her greatest skill and artistry in the production of snowflakes, Nature
generously fashions the most beautiful specimens on a very thin plane
so that they are specially adapted for photomicrographical study.
The photographing of snowflakes, although quite delicate work, can hardly
be called difficult, although some hardships attend it, because the work
must all be done in a temperature below freezing, and under conditions
of much physical exposure. The temperature at which photography is possible
depends somewhat upon the thickness of the crystals; this varies greatly
from time to time, and depends upon whether the temperature is rising
from an intense degree of cold or falling from a point above freezing.
If rising after a cold snap, photographing can often be continued until
actual thawing commences.
Of course, location is everything in this work, and no one except those
living in arctic climates or in regions having long and severe winters,
can accomplish much. Generally speaking, the western quadrants of widespread
storms or blizzards furnish the most beautiful and perfect forms. At such
times the wind is usually westerly or northerly, with the barometer standing
at 29.6 to 29.9 in. and slowing rising. The percentage of perfect crystals
is likely to be larger when the snowfall is not too thick and heavy, with
the crystals medium to small in size rather than large. The character
of the snowfall often undergoes quite abrupt changes as a storm progresses.
The apparatus required for snowflake photography consists
of a compound microscope, fitted with a joint that permits the instrument
to be turned down horizontally, at right angles to its base, so that it
can be coupled to a camera bellows by means of a light-tight connection.
The microscope objectives are used alone, without the eyepiece. It is
best to have several different objectives; 1/2, 3/4, and 3-in. combinations,
which give magnifications of from 8 to 60 diameters (64 to 3,600 times),
will serve well.
Ordinary daylight, coming through a window, is used for illuminating
the crystal after it has been placed on a microscope slide, a tiny beam
of light entering through the small aperture in the substage of the instrument.
The apparatus is placed indoors, near by and facing a window. The room,
the apparatus, and its accessories should always be away from any source
of artificial heat, and at a temperature approximately that of the outside
air. The necessary accessories are an observation microscope, a pair of
thick mittens, microscope slides, a sharp-pointed wooden splint, a feather,
and a turkey wing or similar duster; also, an extra focusing back for
the camera, containing clear glass instead of the usual ground glass,
with a magnifying lens attached; this is used for final focusing. A blackboard,
about 1 ft. square, with stiff wire or metal handles at the ends, so that
the hands will not touch and warm it, is used to collect the specimens.
As it is necessary to cover the end of the microscope objective with a
strip of black card, that takes the place of the usual camera shutter
which controls the duration of exposure, it is necessary to fit two vertical
rods at each side of the microscope tube to hold the card.
The snowflakes are caught on the blackboard as they fall, and examined
by the naked eye or with the assistance of a hand magnifying glass. The
feather duster is used to brush the board clean every few seconds, until
two or more promising specimens alight upon it, when it is immediately
removed indoors. From this point onward the photographer must work fast.
The promising specimens are placed for a moment's observation under the
observation microscope. The removal of the snowflake from the board to
the microscope slide is accomplished with the sharp-pointed splint, which
is pressed gently against the face of the crystal until the latter adheres
to it, so that it can be picked up and placed on the glass slide. Usually
several crystals are placed together on a single slide, a momentary glance
being given to each, and care taken while doing this not to breathe on
the crystals. The utmost haste must be used, for a snow crystal is often
exceedingly tiny, and frequently not thicker than heavy paper. Furthermore,
once these bits of pure beauty are isolated, evaporation (not melting)
soon wears them away, so that, even in zero weather, they last but a very
few minutes. When a desirable specimen is obtained, it is pressed flat
against the glass with the edge of the feather and the slide inserted
in the stage of the microscope on the camera stand, centered, roughly
focused with the camera ground glass, then sharply focused with the clear-glass
screen and magnifier, focusing on some tiny air tube near the center of
the crystal. The plate holder is then inserted into the camera, the objective
covered with the black card and the slide removed from the plate holder.
The objective is then uncovered, and when the exposure, which may vary
from 8 seconds to 100 or more, is deemed sufficient, the operation is
reversed. Naturally enough, no rule for the length of exposure can be
given, except that the greater the magnification, the longer the exposure
The frail, feathery flakes are the most difficult to photograph, and
it is always best to place five or six other crystals around the specimen,
as this greatly retards the evaporation of the central one.
When working from the rear of the camera, and the bellows extension is
such as to make it impossible to reach the focusing screw on the microscope,
an arrangement similar to that shown in the page illustration can be used.
This consists of a cord that runs over a wheel on each side of the camera
and around the focusing screw. No lens is required in the camera, the
microscope furnishing the optical equipment for projecting the images
onto the sensitized plates.
Having recorded the fleeting substance of the snowflakes on the photographic
negative and brought out the image by development, the photographer discovers
that the body of the snow crystal is so transparent, that it does not
contrast enough with its background to make a print in which the form
will stand out in relief. There is no purely photographic method for producing
the white images against a dark background, and yet it is necessary to
do so if the images are to be appreciated by most people, whose ideal
of snow is that of immaculate whiteness. The only effective method of
accomplishing this result is what is known among photographers as "blocking
The negative is supported on an ordinary retoucher's desk, which may
be merely a piece of glass, arranged to hold the negative so that the
image is illuminated by transmitted light. Then, with an etching knife
or other fine, sharp-pointed tool, the operator proceeds to scrape away
the emulsion around the outline of the crystal to leave it standing alone
against a background of clear glass. This requires considerable patience,
and often considerable time as well. In order to avoid irreparably spoiling
the original negative, it is best not to alter it in any way, but to make
a copy negative on which the actual blocking out is done. After the negative
has been thus prepared, prints or lantern slides are made in the usual
manner. Blocking out the negatives is done indoors, instead of outdoors
as shown by the photograph, which was thus taken to get sufficient light
to allow the exposure to be made.
(The website issue of the Popular Mechanics Magazine article does
not include the images presented in the original.)